Tag: 上海油压店

Castillo wins the Ken Garland Invitational for cross country

first_imgLinkedin Women’s Basketball falls in regular-season finale against Texas Sam Fristachihttps://www.tcu360.com/author/sam-fristachi/ Facebook Previous articleVolleyball swept by Florida State, finish winless in Fight in the Fort TournamentNext articleHoroscope: September 9, 2019 Sam Fristachi RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Women’s Basketball on three-game skid after loss to Oklahoma Mariah Castillo at the Ken Garland Invitational. Photo Courtesy of GoFrogs.com TCU rowing program strengthens after facing COVID-19 setbacks TCU baseball finds their biggest fan just by saying hello Another series win lands TCU Baseball in the top 5, earns Sikes conference award Women’s basketball falls in Big 12 Championship quarterfinals to Baylor Sam Fristachihttps://www.tcu360.com/author/sam-fristachi/ Sam Fristachihttps://www.tcu360.com/author/sam-fristachi/ ReddIt Sam Fristachihttps://www.tcu360.com/author/sam-fristachi/ Samantha Fristachi is a senior from Massapequa, New York. She is a journalism and sports broadcasting major and a business minor. She hopes to be a sports broadcaster on ESPN one day. + posts Women’s Basketball falls to Kansas State in overtime loss Twitter Twitter ReddIt Sam Fristachi Linkedin printMariah Castillo won the 5k race at the Ken Garland Invitational on Saturday for TCU, becoming the first Horned Frog to win a 5k since Agnes Kemboi in 2012.The sophomore won the race at the 18:02.32 mark, with the next closest runner 53.64 seconds behind her. This was just Castillo’s fourth collegiate cross country race. “I thought Mariah ran solid, she started conservatively and then just ran away from the field in the second half,” head coach Jennifer Fazioli said. “She looks very relaxed right now as we continue to build fitness.”Junior Evelyn Mandel finished in third place with a time of 19:00.44. Sophomore Isabella Aguilar ended the race in 16th place with a time of 20:17.55. Four other Frogs competed in the race and rounded out the standings. For the men’s team, sophomore Lakelin Conrad was the first Frog to cross the finish line for the second week in a row. He finished in 16th place with a time of 22:16.57 in the four-mile race.Sophomore Lakelin Conrad will be a key part of the Frog’s Cross Country Team this season. Photo Courtesy of GoFrogs.comFreshman Samuel Busa was right behind Conrad, ending in 17th place with a time of 22:26.83.“The majority of the team is young and still learning to race,” Fazioli said. “The footing on the course was challenging but all were able to engage and race late.”The men finished third overall, while the women came in fourth.The Frogs are back in action on Sept. 14th at the Gerald Richey Invitational in Dallas. Facebooklast_img read more

Mayor Urges Pasadenans to Wear Masks as City Reports 13 New COVID-19 Infections

first_img Community News HerbeautyShort On Time? 10-Minute Workouts Are Just What You NeedHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty6 Strong Female TV Characters Who Deserve To Have A SpinoffHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty11 Ayurveda Heath Secrets From Ancient IndiaHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyAt 9 Years Old, This Young Girl Dazzled The World Of FashionHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty9 Signs That Your Ex May Still Want You BackHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty9 Of The Best Family Friendly Dog BreedsHerbeautyHerbeauty EVENTS & ENTERTAINMENT | FOOD & DRINK | THE ARTS | REAL ESTATE | HOME & GARDEN | WELLNESS | SOCIAL SCENE | GETAWAYS | PARENTS & KIDS STAFF REPORT First Heatwave Expected Next Week faithfernandez More » ShareTweetShare on Google+Pin on PinterestSend with WhatsApp,Virtual Schools PasadenaHomes Solve Community/Gov/Pub SafetyPasadena Public WorksPasadena Water and PowerPASADENA EVENTS & ACTIVITIES CALENDARClick here for Movie Showtimes Make a comment Business News More Cool Stuff Name (required)  Mail (required) (not be published)  Website  Get our daily Pasadena newspaper in your email box. Free.Get all the latest Pasadena news, more than 10 fresh stories daily, 7 days a week at 7 a.m. Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *center_img Top of the News CITY NEWS SERVICE/STAFF REPORT Pasadena Will Allow Vaccinated People to Go Without Masks in Most Settings Starting on Tuesday STAFF REPORT Pasadena’s ‘626 Day’ Aims to Celebrate City, Boost Local Economy Subscribe Government Mayor Urges Pasadenans to Wear Masks as City Reports 13 New COVID-19 Infections L.A. County colleges told not to resume in-person classes this fall By BRIAN DAY Published on Wednesday, August 12, 2020 | 4:45 pm Community News Pasadena Mayor Terry Tornek implored residents to wear masks on Wednesday as health officials reported 13 new cases of COVID-19 in the city and county officials announced colleges will not be able to resume in-person classes this fall.But city spokeswoman Lisa Derderian cautioned that the case count was “almost assuredly” low due to ongoing problems with the statewide electronic lab reporting system. No new deaths were reported.State officials said the data issue has been resolved, but the process of working through the backlog is ongoing. Meanwhile, Pasadena Public Health Department officials have been working to get better data directly from health care providers, according to Derderian.The city had seen a total of 2,146 reported novel coronavirus infections and 111 fatalities as of Wednesday.Pasadena Mayor Terry Tornek issued a video statement Wednesday urging Pasadenans to make use of the only weapons we have against COVID-19.While restrictions on businesses and other activities have changed over time during the pandemic, “one thing has been pretty consistent,” Tornek said. “We know that until we have drugs that work, all we really have to fight the spread of the infections are social distancing, cloth face coverings, and good sanitation.”“The fact that wearing a cloth face covering has become controversial is really quite astonishing. I know a lot of people don’t like them, but the rules are simple and clear: You must wear them to slow the spread of the disease.”Officials have previously said the city was hoping to not have to issue citations to bring about compliance, but the possibility remains on the table.“We don’t want to fine people or occupy our police officers’ time with an enforcement burden, but you must really wear your face covering whenever you go out,” the mayor said. “Remember, we’re all in this together, and this is a simple and tangible way that each of us can do our part.”Huntington Hospital was treating 33 COVID-19 patients on Wednesday. Twenty-eight tests were pending.Meanwhile, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health announced Wednesday that schools and universities in the campus will not be able to resume in-person classes in the fall semester.“Colleges and universities in Los Angeles County may continue their essential operations, but most academic instruction must continue to be done via distance-learning,” county health officials said in a written statement.“Institutions may continue to offer in-person training and instruction only for students who are or will become part of the essential workforce and only for required activities that cannot be accomplished through virtual learning. All other academic instruction must continue to be done via distance-learning,” according to the statement. “Faculty and other staff may come to campus for the purpose of providing distance learning, and other activities related to the purposes above, as well as maintaining minimum basic operations.”Institutions were urged to “limit their on-campus student residency to only providing housing for students who have no alternative housing options,” the statement said. “Collegiate sports may only proceed in compliance with all the California Department of Public Health Specific Interim Guidance for Collegiate Athletics.”County health officials announced 2,428 new infections and 58 new deaths.“The number of new cases reported today includes about 700 backlog cases from the state,” county health officials said in a written statement. “We anticipate receiving additional backlog cases later this week.” Death and hospitalization rates were not affected by the problem, officials said.Seventy-one percent of Wednesday’s new cases involved people under 50 years old, health officials said.The county has reported a total of 214,197 novel coronavirus infections and 5,109 deaths since the onset of the pandemic in March.Officials reported 1,538 L.A. County residents were hospitalized with COVID-19 on Wednesday, with 32 percent of them being treated in intensive care units.“Our thoughts and prayers are with all of those who have suffered the loss of someone they love to COVID-19. As the number of deaths continue to rise, we join with others across the county to offer our heartfelt condolences,” said L.A. County Director of Public Health Barbara Ferrer.“I know that our decision to delay fully reopening colleges and universities is disheartening news for our students who were looking forward to life on campus. But this postponement means that we will continue to slow the spread of COVID-19 and get to the point where we can return to campus when rates of community transmission are lower,” Ferrer said.“Colleges and universities are an important driver of innovation, cultural vibrancy, and economic activity in the county,” she said.” At the same time, the very nature of the way that colleges and universities operate creates a significant risk of outbreaks of COVID-19 among students, faculty and staff. And these risks extend beyond campus into the broader community. That is why we have made the difficult, but necessary decision to limit the reopening of these important institutions.”California Gov. Gavin Newsom announced 11,645 new infections and 180 additional deaths in the state. But he added that 5,433 of the cases were newly detected, while the other 6, 212 were the result of the state catching up on its recent data backlog.In all, California had seen 586,056 cases of COVID-19 and 10,648 deaths, according to the California Department of Public Health.Officials said 5,442 patients were hospitalized with the virus statewide, with 1,699 of them — or 31 percent — in intensive care units.As of Wednesday, L.A. County accounted for 37 percent of California’s COVID-19 infections and 48 percent of the state’s fatalities. 28 recommended0 commentsShareShareTweetSharePin it Home of the Week: Unique Pasadena Home Located on Madeline Drive, Pasadenalast_img read more

Hot weather warning for Limerick

first_imgMET Éireann have issued a status yellow weather warning for Limerick as temperatures soar to 27 degrees.The warning is also in place for Clare, Kerry, Cork, Galway and Mayo.Sign up for the weekly Limerick Post newsletter Sign Up It comes into force from 1pm on Thursday until the evening time.Temperatures today are set to reach 25 degrees in places with the West of Ireland being the hottest. RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Previous articleThe Limerick Post Show | Munster Hurling Final PreviewNext articleCity and Soul: Star in the fashion infirmament Meghann Scully Limerick’s National Camogie League double header to be streamed live Twitter WATCH: “Everyone is fighting so hard to get on” – Pat Ryan on competitive camogie squads Predictions on the future of learning discussed at Limerick Lifelong Learning Festival Print Email WhatsAppcenter_img Limerick Ladies National Football League opener to be streamed live LimerickNewsHot weather warning for LimerickBy Meghann Scully – June 26, 2019 541 Linkedin Billy Lee names strong Limerick side to take on Wicklow in crucial Division 3 clash Advertisement TAGSKeeping Limerick PostedlimerickLimerick Postsummersunshineweather Facebook Donal Ryan names Limerick Ladies Football team for League openerlast_img read more

The costs of inequality: A goal of justice, a reality of unfairness

first_imgAn associate professor of social psychology at the University of California, Los Angeles, Goff is co-founder of the Center for Policing Equity, a think tank that promotes police transparency and accountability. He helped to establish the first database with national statistics on police behavior. Currently working with 50 law enforcement agencies, Goff and his team are compiling information on police stops and the use of force. By comparing broad sets of information on police behavior, Goff and his researchers hope to identify and correct racial disparities in policing. He said that many police departments are eager for such information because they want to do a better job.“They want it,” he said. “They are asking for it.”Goff hopes that recommendations from President Obama’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing, created in the wake of Ferguson and other tragedies, will help. Important steps toward reform could include placing a limit on the minimum size of police departments, ensuring civilian oversight of policing, addressing implicit bias in police training, and adopting proportionality standards for the use of force.“It’s not a proportionality standard that says, ‘I can use force proportional to what you use against me,’” said Goff, “but rather a standard that says, ‘I can use force proportional to the crime that you were suspected of committing in the first place.’ If you think about some of the recent incidents that have caused so much outrage, they have been in part because the consequence of the infraction was death, but the infraction was so minor: selling loose cigarettes, failing to signal, running away from law enforcement. None of these things should result in a death sentence.”Goff supports using video cameras to tape police actions, and he said the momentum toward them seems inevitable. He sees video as a positive development that most police officers want. “Having gone on patrol with officers, I understand why. They are going to be better protected from crazy accusations that residents make.” But Goff cautions that body cameras also raise privacy concerns.Some solutions, great and smallThere are other proposed solutions, great and small, that could reduce judicial inequality.Western proposes improving treatment programs and services for at-risk people. Breaking the pipeline to prison, he and other analysts say, would require early and continued social interventions, particularly deflecting future possible offenders from the path to crime when they’re young.“People are often dealing in a sustained way with all sorts of problems that are largely beyond their control, that have to do with their home environments, their neighborhoods. Our data suggest we need to be thinking about interventions that are sustained through childhood, and measures that can help stabilize the home lives of at-risk kids in a sustained way,” Western said.Support programs for addicts and the mentally ill also could curb the prison population, analysts say. Expanded “specialty treatment courts” could divert defendants into aid programs rather than warehousing incarceration.For Pager, reform advocate Glenn Martin’s program to train ex-offenders to become political and social leaders in their own communities offers promise. That type of effort “puts a new face on who these individuals are,” she said, “and on what they are capable of, and what they are advocating for.”“In drug court, the idea is to get drug offenders help and have them successfully complete a treatment plan rather than go to prison,” said Steiker. “The same thing is true for mental illness courts that attempt to deal with people whose crimes are the product of untreated illness. You establish a treatment plan and try to get them the services and support they need, rather than punishment. The idea is to take a therapeutic rehabilitative approach, rather than a punitive approach in the first instance.”As an alternative to incarceration, Gertner pointed to programs like Roca, “rock” in Spanish, a Boston nonprofit that works with teens and young adults. Roca’s “cognitive-restructuring and skills-development intervention” and intensive outreach have helped move some young people away from violence and poverty, she said.Possible solutions to judicial inequalityEnd to mandatory sentencesJuvenile courts open at least to age 21Equalized drug-case sentencingBail that factors in circumstancesCommunity service in lieu of jailTreatment rather than sentencingPost-prison job supportEffective social servicesMedical and mental health careReductions in poverty, hopelessness“It’s an experimental period,” she said about being young, “and the notion is that we have to enable that experiment because the other experiment in mass incarceration was an abject failure.”Some analysts say that the penal system should reconsider how it treats violent offenders, including re-examining life sentences. “We are going to have to talk about the kinds of sentences we give to people who commit violent crimes,” said Steiker. “Those sentences are vastly longer here in our country than they are, for example, in Europe, and that has to be on the table too.”Interestingly, both major political parties have found rare common ground on some of these issues and are looking with fresh eyes at the burgeoning prison problem and the failure of long-held policies to reduce criminal behavior. Increasingly, officials are realizing that some policies are worsening the situation. So a movement toward change is taking hold.In October, the Justice Department began releasing 6,000 inmates early, in keeping with the Sentencing Commission’s retroactive reduction of maximum sentences for drug offenders, announced in 2014. In his final State of the Union address in January, President Obama said, “I hope we can work together on bipartisan priorities like criminal justice reform.”Many Democratic and Republican senators are backing a measure called the Sentencing Reform and Corrections Act that would soften federal sentencing guidelines. Supporters hope that the bill will reach the full Senate this year.Hinton says that lessons from the past could help improve the future. For instance, allowing communities to have a voice in neighborhood programs, an early success in the war on poverty, could be weaved into policing today.“I think part of the first step is really trusting people in low-income communities to devise ways to keep their communities safe,” Hinton said. “Everybody wants to live in a safe community, but there’s never been a moment where grassroots residents really had the power to do that, and were entrusted to do that by federal policymakers.“And if we want to redefine the role of police in terms of providing educational and social welfare programs, there needs to be a whole new level of training and an entirely new incentive structure within departments,” Hinton said, “so that police are equipped to offer those kinds of services and are rewarded for their role in fostering social welfare as much as they are for meeting arrest quotas.”Nancy Gertner, lecturer at Harvard Law School and former U.S. federal judge. Stephanie Mitchell/Harvard Staff PhotographerSoftening rigid and unjust sentencing guidelines, Gertner says, would require a judicial overhaul. She favors eliminating mandatory minimums, restoring discretion in sentencing, and offering judges a robust menu of options from a list of evidence-based rehabilitative initiatives.“The disparity concerns of 20 years ago were not illegitimate, but the way to deal with disparity in sentencing is by coming up with programs that we have validated and tested, programs that we have legitimized,” said Gertner. “Going forward, we have to look at things differently.”Former inmates clearly need help establishing themselves as productive citizens, analysts say, and clues suggest what works there as well. For instance, most former Massachusetts inmates are immediately enrolled in MassHealth, said Western, since stable medical care is a key to successful re-entry. Implementing a similar effort nationally, perhaps through Medicaid, could play an important role in successful transitions.Steady employment is also vital. Western cited studies showing that prisoners in low-security facilities who were allowed to work during the day often retained those work-release jobs after finishing their sentences.“This continuity of employment and the savings provided by the work-release job are important for community return,” he said.Informed screenings could help to change the hiring landscape, said Pager, by encouraging employers to heed U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission guidelines. The commission asks that companies consider applicants with criminal records, and says that relevant factors in hiring include the time that has elapsed since a conviction, the evidence of rehabilitation, and the relationship between the crime and the open job.The goal is to encourage employers to conduct “a whole-person review,” said Pager.A better way on bailOn the issue of fair bail, analysts suggest better screening to determine whether someone can afford a fine before it’s imposed, and community service alternatives for those who don’t have money, said Lipton. The role of private probation companies also should be scrutinized and limited, he said. “I think part of the first step is really trusting people in low-income communities to devise ways to keep their communities safe.” — Elizabeth Hinton Then there is the issue involving those who haven’t even begun prison sentences yet. Many thousands are consigned to local jails while awaiting trial or sentencing, or while serving short sentences. For many of them, posting bail is a challenge or even an impossibility.“Someone’s inability to make bail or inability to pay a relatively modest fine or fee can spiral into years of incarceration, being jailed repeatedly, and having the fines and fees grow and grow,” said Steiker. “It can destroy people’s ability to work and to live their lives simply because they lack the funds to pay bail or a fine or a fee.”In addition, court systems around the country increasingly are outsourcing their probation operations to private firms that make money by charging offenders extra fees.“The private company may have little or no interest in achieving justice,” said Jacob Lipton, who leads Harvard’s Systemic Justice Project along with HLS Professor Jon Hanson.Rising solitary confinementIn tandem with the incarceration rate, the use of solitary confinement in America has skyrocketed over the past two decades.A recent report by the Bureau of Justice Statistics said that nearly 20 percent of state and federal prison inmates and 18 percent of local jail inmates have spent time in restrictive conditions, including disciplinary or administrative segregation or solitary confinement.Phillip Abita Goff, visiting scholar at Harvard Kennedy School and co-founder of the Center for Policing Equity. Kris Snibbe/Harvard Staff PhotographerResearch routinely shows that solitary can produce devastating psychological effects, including panic attacks, hallucinations, depression, mood swings, and even suicide. Solitary confinement “drives men mad,” U.S. Supreme Court Associate Justice Anthony Kennedy said during a visit to HLS last year during which he disparaged the criminal justice system for the practice, as well as for overcrowding and too-lengthy sentences.Then there is the hot-button topic of police relations with minority communities. A number of civilian deaths during interactions with police in Ferguson, Mo., Staten Island, N.Y., Cleveland, and Baltimore have put the discussion about comprehensive policing reform in the national spotlight.It’s a conversation, argues Goff, that is desperate for big data. Massive, complex computer studies in recent years have transformed business, science, and government. Some analysts think that big data could be a game-changer for police departments to increase their effectiveness.“Right now, we are a single blind person feeling at the middle of the elephant, with no clue of where the edges are. That’s because we don’t have any national-level data on police behavior,” said Goff. “The use of solitary confinement is a brutal aspect of American incarceration.” — Bruce Western African-American participants paid bigger penalties for having criminal records than whites did, receiving fewer interviews and offers. Most unsettling, a black applicant with a clear record fared no better than a white applicant just released from prison.Pager said her findings suggest that “being black in America today is sort of like having a felony conviction in terms of how employers view these applicants … The criminal justice system really casts a shadow over all black men and strengthens that association between blackness and criminality in a way that affects the entire black population, especially the entire black male population.”Pager’s more recent research looks at how people with criminal records perform in the military. The results indicate that former inmates actually tend to advance more quickly and receive more promotions than other enlistees.“Employers are reluctant to hire ex-offenders because they fear individuals with criminal records may perform badly or cause harm in the workplace,” said Pager. “Unfortunately, there is no existing evidence with which to evaluate these concerns. We look to the military as a test case, as America’s largest employer. The fact that ex-offenders perform as well, if not better, than their counterparts without criminal records suggests that employers’ concerns may be exaggerated.“I take that to be a really encouraging sign,” she added. “With appropriate screening, these are individuals who perform very well on the job.”The problem of young offendersThe penal system can prove particularly damaging to youthful offenders. Researchers say that judicial officials who punish teens and even those in their early 20s as adults are turning their backs on the proven science of brain development and the rehabilitation options available in juvenile courts.“Most people who have a felony career start before they are 25, and most people, thankfully, age out at 25,” said Vinny Schiraldi, senior research fellow at the HKS Program in Criminal Justice Policy and Management and former commissioner of the New York City Department of Probation. “So if we can get you past 25 without having a felony conviction, the chances of you ever having a felony conviction drop substantially.”Schiraldi and Western support raising the age limit of juvenile courts to 21 or even 25, and they are using the latest neuroscience research to make their case. They cite work by Laurence Steinberg at Temple University, who has shown that the 18- to 25-year-old-brain isn’t fully mature. Teenagers and young adults are still developing reasoning and judgment, said Schiraldi.“They are more impulsive, particularly in emotionally charged settings, less future-oriented, more peer-influenced, and are greater risk-takers. All of those things impact criminality. And so if you believe that we should have a juvenile system, which most people do, and you believe that young adults are more similar to juveniles than to more fully mature adults, and they are, then it stands to reason that we should have more protections for them and a special approach.“I think if done right,” added Schiraldi, “such systems, implemented nationally, could have a substantial impact on reducing mass incarceration and equalizing the playing field.” “Most people who have a felony career start before they are 25, and most people, thankfully, age out at 25. So if we can get you past 25 without having a felony conviction, the chances of you ever having a felony conviction drop substantially.” — Vinny Schiraldi Some lawyers are challenging the constitutionality of jailing people simply because they can’t afford to pay fees. If a senior court ruled against the practice and required states to develop a better system, that decision could propel change, Lipton said. “But it remains to be seen whether there will actually be serious steps taken to reduce some of these penalties and reset the norms back down to somewhere that I would say is more reasonable,” Lipton said.Western sees hope in reducing the mind-numbing practice of solitary confinement. Some correctional leaders have admitted “they need to re-examine the way in which solitary confinement is used in American prisons,” Western said. Obama recently announced a ban on solitary for juveniles in federal prisons.“The use of solitary confinement is a brutal aspect of American incarceration. In Europe, severe isolation is used for hours at a time, but we use it for months and sometimes years,” said Western.“But the pendulum may be swinging away.”Illustration by Kathleen M.G. Howlett.Next Tuesday: Gender-based inequality Fifth in a series on what Harvard scholars are doing to identify and understand inequality, in seeking solutions to one of America’s most vexing problems. When starting a semester, Harvard Law School (HLS) Professor Carol Steiker likes to ask her first-year criminal law students to describe what they think are the biggest societal changes of the past 40 years. The students often cite the rise of social media, or global warming, or same-sex marriage.Then it’s Steiker’s turn. “I show them the statistics,” said Steiker, the School’s Henry J. Friendly Professor of Law, “and they are stunned.”Her numbers show mass incarceration in the United States. Beginning in the 1970s, the prison population began swelling, climbing steadily through 2009. Now, this nation imprisons more of its residents, 2.2 million, than any other. The United States jails a quarter of the world’s prisoners, although it contains only 5 percent of the world’s population. The statistics are sobering for a republic that celebrates justice, fairness, and equality as the granite pillars of its democracy.Carol Steiker, Henry J. Friendly Professor of Law at Harvard Law School. Stephanie Mitchell/Harvard Staff PhotographerAmerica’s prison system produces other stark numbers. “You just look at our prisons and jails,” said Steiker, “and they are overwhelmingly filled with poor people and people of color.”Some analysts call that sky-high incarceration rate this era’s Civil Rights issue, and say the justice system warehouses inmates, damages families, and hollows communities. The system must be repaired, they argue, if everyday life is to reflect the nation’s aspirational core values.According to Bruce Western, Harvard sociology professor and the Daniel and Florence Guggenheim Professor of Criminal Justice Policy, about two-thirds of African-American men with low levels of schooling will go to prison during their lifetimes. Most inmates are minority men under age 40 “whose economic opportunities have suffered the most over the last 30 or 40 years. Incarceration in the United States is socially concentrated among very disadvantaged people.”In addition, the Internet age, a boon in so many ways, can make life worse for former inmates, since a person’s criminal record is often accessible now with the click of a mouse. “And so as marginalizing as the experience of incarceration used to be,” said Western, “it’s even more so now.”The U.S. imprisons more of its residents, 2.2 million people, than any other country in the world. Almost a quarter of the world’s prisoners are held in American prisons.The roots of America’s mass-incarceration policies are tangled in history, politics, social conflict, and inequality. It’s a pretzel-logic labyrinth, and to solve it or even simplify it, analysts say, will require sweeping, head-on reforms.One overarching way to reduce America’s urban crime problem would be to chip away at its root causes, analysts say, starting with helping the millions of Americans overwhelmed and made desperate by poverty. It’s a simple but often forgotten fact that people without education, jobs, housing, or hope commit most crimes. Harvard scholars say that a broad-brush campaign to target crime would include effective social services, early education initiatives, access to health care and mental health services, and more housing and job opportunities.“Before anybody’s had contact with law enforcement, they’ve had contact with schools, with jobs, either getting them or not, with the health care system and the housing systems, all of which suffer from many of the same and sometimes even worse forms of bias than does law enforcement,” said Phillip Atiba Goff, a visiting scholar at the Harvard Kennedy School (HKS) who leads an effort to collect nationwide data on police behavior.“What we are frequently picking up on is not the prejudice or discrimination by law enforcement, but rather the symptoms of a society that is still sickened and toxified by the prejudices and discrimination of our current society, and from generations past.”The criminal justice systemWhen it comes to the criminal justice system, analysts say that reducing inequality significantly would require an overhaul of the nation’s sentencing system, better diversion and prevention programs, prison reforms, more effective policing policies and training, and comprehensive support for former prisoners trying to mold stable lives.In recent decades, historians and experts say, national crime policies have veered toward harsher punishments, but not more effective ones.Some analysts trace the soaring spike in the nation’s prison population to President Ronald Reagan’s expansion of the war on drugs. But others say it began earlier. Elizabeth Hinton, an assistant professor of African and African-American studies at Harvard, argues that the administration of President Lyndon Johnson, a champion of civil rights, set the stage for expanded incarceration.Johnson’s progressive social policies never had the staying power of his anti-crime programs, Hinton said, such as initiatives that gave surplus military weapons to police departments. That equipment, plus federal funds for law enforcement, helped lead to increased surveillance and incarceration, she said.Elizabeth Hinton, assistant professor of African and African-American studies in the Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Rose Lincoln/Harvard Staff Photographer“Ronald Reagan and subsequent administrations stepped into a bureaucracy and a crime-control infrastructure that was created and directed by the Lyndon Johnson administration,” said Hinton, whose upcoming book will examine the connections between the rise of America’s “carceral state” and Johnson’s anti-poverty programs.“The prison population spike that we see in the ’80s was made possible by these earlier policies, and the ways in which crime-control programs and social welfare programs end up becoming entangled.”Prior to that period, many federal programs had emphasized crime prevention. Johnson and President John Kennedy, for instance, had backed building urban recreational facilities to bring residents together with social workers, police, and probation officers, while avoiding stigmatizing neighborhood teens as delinquents. But those early efforts eventually backfired, Hinton said, casting “low-income youth — whose families are on welfare, who live in public housing projects, who attend urban public schools, and who have family members with arrest records — as potentially delinquent.”When the programs, which had been run by social workers, were gradually defunded, the police took on administering what was left of them. That shift gave officers “more and more opportunities to supervise a population they saw as troublesome,” said Hinton. By President Jimmy Carter’s administration, Hinton said, the social welfare programs had almost entirely “vanished from the urban landscape,” replaced by services involving “police officers and law enforcement institutions.”Achieving neitherThe increasingly crime-conscious 1980s brought a wave of legislation aimed at making sentencing fairer and streets safer, but which succeeded, many critics argue, at achieving neither.The Sentencing Reform Act of 1984, part of the Comprehensive Crime Control Act, enacted a sweeping revision of the criminal code. The legislation established the U.S. Sentencing Commission and tasked it with providing guidelines to federal courts — a radical shift in policy, since judges previously had wide discretion in sentencing. The commission introduced mandatory sentencing for various crimes and eliminated federal parole for some cases, immediately boosting prison rolls.About two-thirds of African-American men with low levels of schooling will go to prison in their lifetime.Instead of improving fairness in sentencing, as was intended, the new system wound up promoting inequality, says HLS lecturer Nancy Gertner, herself a former federal judge. Judges suddenly had to hand down standard sentences to those convicted of some specified crimes who had particular criminal histories.“You couldn’t focus on their mental state, you couldn’t focus on family background, you couldn’t focus on drug addiction, you couldn’t focus on all the things that had been terribly important previously, and should have been important,” she said.African-Americans make up only 13.2% of the U.S. population, according to the Census Bureau. Graphic by Harvard StaffThe Reagan administration’s crackdown on drugs also drove up the incarceration rate and helped lock in a disparity in the expanding prison population, she said. Many analysts connected the rise in crime to the rise in use of cocaine, including the crystal form known as crack that was popular in minority communities. Reagan’s Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986 ushered in mandatory sentencing rules for drug crimes. But the new mandates were inherently unequal. An offender would need to have 100 grams of powdered cocaine to receive the same sentence as someone possessing one gram of crack.“The same substance that was being used in the white community was being punished much less harshly than the substance that’s being used in the black community,” said Gertner. “That set the tone for an extraordinary racial disparity baked into this structure.”Sentences grew stiffer, but analysts agree they never led to a significant drop in crime. The crime rate, an analysis shows, began dropping before the number of prisoners skyrocketed. Most telling, the rate also dropped in places without punitive policies.Western, who is also director of the Malcolm Wiener Center for Social Policy, has been studying prison populations for years. Just as striking as the scale of the American penal system, he says, is its lopsided distribution across the population. Those jailed are overwhelmingly minority men, often African-Americans with little schooling. According to Western, one in eight African-American men born just after World War II who didn’t go to college spent time in prison. For those born in the late 1970s, the statistics are worse, with 36 percent going to prison. If they had dropped out of high school, the percentage jumped to 70.“The expansion of the criminal justice system was a response not just to the problem of crime, but to a whole array of social problems associated with the uniquely harsh conditions of American poverty,” said Western, “and the communities that were dealing with those social problems were disproportionately minority.”Bruce Western, professor of sociology and director of the Malcolm Wiener Center for Social Policy. Jon Chase/Harvard Staff PhotographerThose everyday problems — including unstable housing, slim job prospects, and inferior health care — are often waiting just outside the prison walls for inmates returning to society.Western is now analyzing data from a study in which he tracked the lives of 122 men and women who left prison and moved back to their Boston neighborhoods. He said the study’s most striking finding was that most who leave prison go straight back to poverty. In addition, many have lives “surrounded by a cloud of violence.”“In many cases they were victims of violence, they were witnesses to violence. And certainly as they got older, they were violent offenders as well.”Another key finding, said Western, was the high number of former inmates who have mental illness or addiction issues. The research recommended installing robust community-based programs and services to ease ex-prisoners’ transitions and dissuade their return to crime.Not surprisingly, analysts say that stable employment is one of the best predictors of former inmates’ success, yet getting jobs can prove quite difficult with a criminal record. Studies have found that wary employers routinely discriminate against job applicants who have been imprisoned.Former inmates need not applyIn 2001 and 2004, Devah Pager, a Harvard professor of sociology and public policy, hired young men to pose as job applicants in New York City and Milwaukee. She gave the participants fake backstories and identical levels of schooling and work histories. But she also instructed subjects from each team to tell potential employers that they had been convicted of drug felonies and had spent 18 months in prison.“No surprise, a criminal record had a huge impact on their hiring outcomes,” said Pager. “The applicants with criminal records received about half as many callbacks or job offers, relative to equally qualified applicants who had no criminal background.”In addition, a former inmate’s race played an outsized role in the hiring process. “The criminal justice system really casts a shadow over all black men and strengthens that association between blackness and criminality in a way that affects the entire black population, especially the entire black male population.” — Devah Pagerlast_img read more

Seagrams began production 86 years ago today

first_imgLawrenceburg, IN—In a moment of Indiana history today, on December 5, 1933, the Twenty-first Amendment passed, repealing Prohibition. On the same day, Joseph E. Seagram & Sons, Inc., began production of whiskey in Lawrenceburg. At its height, the company employed more than 2,500 workers in the Hoosier state, many of which worked at a separate bottling planlast_img