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Researchers say H1N1 virus jumped to humans months ago

first_imgJun 11, 2009 (CIDRAP News) – At almost the same moment today that the World Health Organization announced recognition of an influenza pandemic, researchers from Hong Kong, the United Kingdom and the United States declared that the novel H1N1 virus responsible has been circulating undetected in humans for months—and that its components have been present in pigs for at least a decade.The group, led by Andrew Rambaut, PhD, of the University of Edinburgh’s Institute of Evolutionary Biology, said in a letter to the journal Nature that their findings demonstrate the critical need to ramp up disease-detection efforts in animals: “Despite widespread influenza surveillance in humans, the lack of systematic swine surveillance allowed for the undetected persistence and evolution of this potentially pandemic strain for many years.”If better surveillance had existed, they suggest, the first flu pandemic in 41 years might have been detected much earlier—because the novel H1N1 strain’s evolution tracks with the emergence of earlier and (as yet) more destructive pandemic strains.”All three pandemics of the 20th century seem to have been generated by a series of multiple reassortment events in swine or humans, and to have emerged over a period of years before pandemic recognition,” they write. “Our results show that the genesis of the [swine-origin influenza A H1N1 virus] epidemic followed a similar evolutionary pathway.”The study is the third in 3 weeks to pinpoint the origin of the novel H1N1 strain of flu in pigs in North America, where it underwent complex reassortment. On May 22, a group of 60 scientists led by researchers at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published in the journal Science an analysis of full or partial genomes from 76 viral isolates. And on June 4, scientists from the National Autonomous University of Mexico and the University of Illinois published in Eurosurveillance an analysis of 400 protein sequences.Taken together, the three papers demonstrate an uncharacteristic scientific openness that has been allowing analysis of the novel flu to move at a record pace. In the case of today’s paper, its authors have been posting their findings piece by piece on the Internet, in a multi-author wiki (http://tree.bio.ed.ac.uk/groups/influenza/), and their paper was released by Nature without embargo, in what the journal termed a “near-final version.”To reach their results, Rambaut and colleagues compared the downloaded genetic sequences of 2 isolates of the novel flu, 15 newly sequenced Asian swine flu strains, and 796 human, swine, and avian flu isolates. In addition, using a “molecular clock” technique, they calculated the rate of viral evolution of 30 isolates of the novel flu.Their study yielded a reconstruction of the sequence of reassortment events that produced the new strain. It graphically depicts how braided and complex the evolution of the novel flu has been. Along with it, they publish phylogenetic analyses (“family trees”) for the major genomic segments of the new virus that, by depicting the time gaps between known isolates, illustrate how little surveillance of swine influenza has been carried out.They conclude that the eight genomic segments of the novel H1N1 have been circulating in swine populations for a number of years, from 9.24 years at the shortest (for the PB1 gene) to 17.15 years at the outside (for the NA gene).The complete virus, they estimate, has been circulating in humans since approximately January 2009, and may have emerged as early as August 2008.”This genomic structure may have been circulating in pigs for several years before emergence in humans,” they said. “We urge caution in making inferences about human adaptation on the basis of the ancestry of the individual genes.”Movement of live pigs between Eurasia and North America is likely to have facilitated viral reassortment, they said. Notably, they found a striking resemblance to the novel H1N1 in a 2004 swine influenza isolate from Hong Kong that contained 7 out of 8 genes similar enough for them to dub it a “sister lineage.” They caution though that this does not prove a Eurasian origin for the new flu, but only provides evidence that its swine-flu progenitors were widely geographically distributed.Smith GJD, Vijaykrishna D, Bahl J, et al. Origins and evolutionary genomics of the 2009 swine-origin H1N1 influenza A epidemic. Nature 2009 (advance online publication Jun 11) [Abstract]See also: May 22 CIDRAP News story “Genetic study: Novel H1N1 likely originated in pigs”Garten RJ, Davis CT, Russell CA, et al. Antigenic and genetic characteristics of swine-origin 2009 A (H1N1) influenza viruses circulating in humans. Science 2009 (early online publication May 22) [Abstract]Jun 8 CIDRAP News story “Flu researchers call for enhanced swine surveillance”Nava GM, Attene-Ramos MS, Ang JK, et al. Origins of the new influenza A (H1N1) virus: time to take action. Eurosurveillance 2009 Jun 4;14(22) [Full text]last_img read more

Moses Simon: It was difficult adjusting to life in Europe

first_img The Nantes forward, who is on loan from Levante, has now spent seven years in Europe since signing a pre-contractual agreement with AFC Ajax on 10th May 2013 while at GBS Academy before making his first appearance for the Dutch club on 13 July 2013 in pre-season friendly match against De Graafschap. The Super Eagles winger shared his experience during his early days in Europe in a live Instagram interview with Ojbsports. “It was difficult adjusting to life in Europe. For the first two days we were put in a hotel but I couldn’t eat the food. They served pork and I don’t eat pork, so I survived on bread and water. Eventually they placed me with an English speaking family as my guardians. Narrating his grass to grace story, the 24-year-old said,”I was born in Kaduna with my first academy being GBS academy. Early days I would train three times a day. I would get up at 5am for a run getting back at 7.30am. I would then do ball work with Innocent Bonke who now plays for Malmö between 9am and 11am. Finally I would play Street football in the afternoon. My father was in the army. “I went for screening with Kaduna United, but they were dragging it out for 8 months. I had to hustle for transport fare to be going for screening everyday. We (Innocent and I) would do bricklaying to get money for transport. “One day I got a call from GBS academy. They offered me twice the money being offered by Kaduna academy. At that time the KD United players had not even been paid for five months.The coach drove to my house that night to give me the money and said, let’s go. Of course I couldn’t just leave, I had to consult with my family. “My dad didn’t want me to play, rather to stay in school. So I chose a secondary school that plays football I was still a young boy. GBS academy became my first club eventually. read also:Moses Simon welcomes permanent Nantes stay “I eventually moved to Ajax youth team in Amsterdam before Trencin in Slovakia and KAA Gent in Belgium. I enjoyed playing with the left back in Gent, Nana Aware, a Ghanaian. We played very well together and used to communicate on the pitch in pigin English. It was whilst I was at Ajax that I got the call up for the Under 20,” he said. FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmail分享 Loading… Nigeria international Moses Simon has revealed that it took him time before he could adapt to life in Europe, Sportinglife.ng reports. Promoted ContentCouples Who Celebrated Their Union In A Unique, Unforgettable Way10 Phones That Can Work For Weeks Without Recharging7 Universities In The World Where Education Costs Too MuchThe Highest Paid Football Players In The WorldThe Very Last Bitcoin Will Be Mined Around 2140. Read MoreThis Guy Photoshopped Himself Into Celeb Pics And It’s HystericalBirds Enjoy Living In A Gallery Space Created For ThemDid You Know There’s A Black Hole In The Milky Way?A Guy Turns Gray Walls And Simple Bricks Into Works Of ArtPlaying Games For Hours Can Do This To Your BodyEver Thought Of Sleeping Next To Celebs? This Guy Will Show YouWhich Country Is The Most Romantic In The World?last_img read more

Senator Rand Paul Tests Positive for Coronavirus

first_imgLast week, Florida Senator Mario Diaz-Balart and Utah Senator Ben McAdams also announced they had tested positive for the virus, officially known as COVID-19 Republican Kentucky Senator Dr. Rand Paul has tested positive for coronavirus, according to a Sunday afternoon announcement.His office tweeted:Senator Rand Paul has tested positive for COVID-19. He is feeling fine and is in quarantine. He is asymptomatic and was tested out of an abundance of caution due to his extensive travel and events. He was not aware of any direct contact with any infected person.— Senator Rand Paul (@RandPaul) March 22, 2020 He expects to be back in the Senate after his quarantine period ends and will continue to work for the people of Kentucky at this difficult time. Ten days ago, our D.C. office began operating remotely, hence virtually no staff has had contact with Senator Rand Paul.— Senator Rand Paul (@RandPaul) March 22, 2020last_img read more