Tag: 上海后花园KF

2016: Not a Good Year For The Liberal

first_imgIn many parts of the world, the individual is being made to adhere to the will of the collective Related Itemslast_img

Startup Compensation What Youre Really Giving Getting

first_imgcompensationIn a post for Tony Wright’s Startup End, Wright looks into the topic of startup compensation, focusing in the area of stock options.Wright says while most startups are content to let employees think that stock options are this magical ticket to wealth and prosperity, it’s not the case.He says employees with decent salaries and options will almost never get rich in a liquidity event.“The people who might get rich with startup equity are the founders and the investors, he writes. “he writes.(See 6 Tips for Hiring at a Startup)The best way to look at options, Wright says, are as a high-risk investment.“It’s important to look at the cost of the investment, the chance that the investment will “hit”, the likely magnitude of the return on investment, and the percentage you’ll likely have in your pocket at the time of a liquidity event,” he writes.“The only way to buy more reward is with more risk,” he writes. “If you don’t fancy rolling the financial dice by “investing” in a startup, most startups are probably happy to pay you market rate and dial down your options.”For more on startup compensation, read Wright’s full post here.AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to FacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitterShare to PrintPrintShare to EmailEmailShare to MoreAddThislast_img read more

Certain antibodies against a carbohydrate could protect against malaria

first_imgJul 10 2018Certain type of antibodies against α-Gal- a carbohydrate expressed by many organisms including the malaria parasite- could protect against malaria, according to a new study led by ISGlobal, an institution supported by “la Caixa” Foundation. The results, published in Scientific Reports, indicate that a-Gal is an interesting candidate to include in future vaccines against malaria and other infectious diseases.The magnitude and type of immune response against the malaria parasite is key in controlling the disease. To date, most studies have focused on the antibody response to parasite proteins. However, sugars (or glycans) expressed on the surface of the parasite could also trigger an immune response.Alpha-gal is a particularly interesting glycan: it is expressed by practically all organisms on the evolutionary scale, from bacteria in out gut, to pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella, protozoan parasites such as P. falciparum (that causes malaria) or mammals such as cows. Only humans, apes and old-world monkeys lack the enzyme to synthesize it and generate a strong immune response against it. Recent studies suggest that antibodies to α-Gal could protect against malaria.Related StoriesNew route to quickly transport subcutaneously administered antibodies into lymph nodesAntibodies could cause arthritic painHuman liver cell protein aids development of malaria parasite, study findsIn this study, the teams led by Luis Izquierdo and Carlota Dobaño, ISGlobal researchers, joined forces to assess the magnitude and type of antibody responses against α-Gal in infants and children from Mozambique (a low malaria transmission region) and Ghana (a high transmission region). They used a technique recently developed by Dobaño’s group that allowed measuring for the first time different subclasses of antibodies against this and other parasite antigens in a single reaction and from one drop of blood.”The relevance of this study is that it provides new information on a response (anti α-Gal) that plays a potential protective role against a variety of infectious diseases, not only malaria,” explains Dobaño.The results show that the levels of different α-Gal antibodies vary according to age and are higher in low malaria transmission zones. A significant increase in IgM ?-Gal antibodies was observed in the initial months of life, while IgG antibodies increased later in life. Importantly, an IgM response was associated with protection against clinical malaria, especially in the first months of life, while total IgG were associated with malaria risk.”It would be really interesting to identify the specific α-Gal glycan expressed by the malaria parasite, and to confirm the potential association between certain IgG subclasses and protection,” says Izquierdo. “In any case, these results confirm that α-Gal could be a promising molecule to include in future malaria vaccines,” he adds.Source: https://www.isglobal.org/en/new/-/asset_publisher/JZ9fGljXnWpI/content/ciertos-anticuerpos-dirigidos-contra-un-azucar-estan-asociados-con-la-proteccion-frente-a-la-malarilast_img read more