Insects are attracted to the chemicals in flowers, helping to pollinate the flowers. Image credit: John Severns, Wikimedia Commons. Explore further Citation: Scientists investigate how chemicals evolved into communication signals (2011, January 11) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-01-scientists-chemicals-evolved.html Copyright 2010 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Pheromones a myth in mammals More information: Sandra Steiger, Thomas Schmitt, and H. Martin Schaefer. “The origin and dynamic evolution of chemical information transfer.” Proceedings of the Royal Society B. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2010.2285 (PhysOrg.com) — Living things possess many diverse ways of communicating, but perhaps the oldest and most widespread form of communication involves the use of chemicals. From animals and plants to bacteria and fungi, organisms emit and receive chemical signals as a way of transferring information between one another. Organisms are sensitive to a very broad range of chemicals; for example, scientists estimate that rodents can detect thousands or even tens of thousands of odorant molecules. Exactly how organisms evolved the ability to use chemicals to communicate is still an open question. In a recent review of the subject, researchers Sandra Steiger from Illinois State University and Thomas Schmitt and H. Martin Schaefer, both from the University of Freiburg in Freiburg, Germany, have proposed several mechanisms that help clarify the possible origin and evolution of chemical information transfer. Their study is published in a recent issue of the Proceedings of the Royal Society B.As the scientists explained, chemical information can be found in mammal excrement, insects’ cuticles, spider silk, plant nectar, and so on. Other organisms detect the chemical information in these substances to gain information. For example, red harvester ants have different chemicals in their cuticles that can reveal to other ants whether they are foragers or nest-maintenance workers. And wolves’ feces contain sex hormone levels that indicate their status within the pack to other wolves. The scientists suggested that these chemical cues originated for non-communicative purposes at first, and only inadvertently contained information that other organisms detected. Then, the chemical cues could have evolved into signals in a few different ways. If the organism that detected the original chemical reacted in a way that benefitted the organism that released the chemical, then the chemical’s function as a means of communication should be enhanced through evolution. Enhancement could be done by, for example, the sender increasing the quantity of the chemical cue, adding behavioral components to the chemical cue, or modifying the chemical cue to become more conspicuous.“In the last years, research on the evolution of chemical signals has largely focused on sex pheromones and their diversification due to speciation events,” Steiger told PhysOrg.com. “However, there are other or additional reasons for the ubiquity and high abundance of chemical signals. Our concept that signals derive from cues is not a novel concept; however, it has been an astonishingly underappreciated topic. The studies we present in our review show that a wide range of organisms release waste products and chemical compounds with non-communicative functions. These chemicals can incidentally carry information and therefore provide multiple starting points for the evolution of chemical communication. As there are different ways how selection enhances the communicative function of these chemicals, several distinct evolutionary trajectories of chemical communication are possible.”Because organisms possess such a large number of different odor receptors, the scientists predicted that evolution may have tailored organisms’ chemical signals to match the sensitivities of the intended receivers while avoiding those of predators. To better understand this process, Steiger says that more phylogenetic studies are needed to support the concept that chemical signals can derive from cues, which is not well-investigated. Phylogenetic studies could also reveal how often organisms use different techniques for enhancing the efficiency of chemical communication (for example, how often behavioral elements are added and how often only the quantity of a chemical is increased).“There is definitely a need for studies that evaluate the different selection factors acting on chemicals,” Steiger said. “Chemicals can have both a communicative role and a non-communicative function (e.g., chemicals on the cuticles of insects protect against desiccation and bacteria, but also function frequently as sex pheromones). Are these multiple functions in conflict or in accordance?”
50-million-year-old clam shells provide indications of future of El Nino phenomenon © 2014 Phys.org The findings by the team also cast doubt on some theories that have been developed to explain why the ENSO occurs at all—primary among them are those that suggest they are due to a slight wobble in the Earth’s orbit. If that were the case, it would seem logical to conclude that an identifiable periodicity would emerge over the course of ten thousand years, but now, that doesn’t appear to be the case. A large shell midden from the Inca period at a study site in Peru’s Ica valley is shown. The climate is so dry that even wooden structures are preserved. Credit: M. Carré / Univ. of Montpellier This image shows a magnified cross-section of a shell. The lines in the outer layer come from growth during low tides, and help to put a time on the temperature measurements. Credit: M. Carré / Univ. of Montpellier Citation: Clam fossils offer 10,000 year history of El Nino Southern Oscillation (2014, August 8) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-08-clam-fossils-year-history-el.html Explore further The middens are ancient dumping sites that typically contain a mix of mollusk shells, fish and bird bones, ceramics, cloth, charcoal, maize and other plants. Credit: M. Carré / Univ. of Montpellier Journal information: Science More information: Holocene history of ENSO variance and asymmetry in the eastern tropical Pacific, Science DOI: 10.1126/science.1252220ABSTRACTUnderstanding the response of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) to global warming requires quantitative data on ENSO under different climate regimes. Here, we present a reconstruction of ENSO in the eastern tropical Pacific spanning the last 10 thousand years (ka) derived from oxygen isotopes in fossil mollusk shells from Peru. We find that ENSO variance was close to the modern level in the early Holocene and severely damped ~4-5 ka. In addition, ENSO variability was skewed toward cold events along coastal Peru 6.7-7.5 ka owing to a shift of warm anomalies toward the Central Pacific. The modern ENSO regime was established ~3-4.5 ka. We conclude that ENSO was sensitive to changes in climate boundary conditions during the Holocene, including, but not limited to insolation.Press release This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (Phys.org) —A research team working in Peru, with members from France, Peru and the U.S. has found a way to track the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) going back as far as ten thousand years. In their paper published in the journal Science, the team reports that their study of clam fossils has revealed clear patterns of the ENSO and report that it has not been increasing in intensity over the course of the Holocene as some have suggested. People have been living on the shores of the Pacific Ocean in Peru for a long time, and as they’ve done so, they’ve eaten clams, tossing the shells onto waste areas that grew to become huge mounds over thousands of years. In this new effort, the researchers dug down into several such mounds and extracted clam fossils they found, along with dirt and charcoal—remnants of ancient fires used to cook the clam meat. By taking measurements of oxygen isotopes in the clam shells, the researchers were able to calculate ocean surface temperatures at two to four week intervals throughout the lives of the individual clams, while radiocarbon dating of the dirt and charcoal revealed when the clams made their way into the mound. Examining multiple clams at different depths in the mounds allowed for creating a historical record of sea surface temperatures, and that allowed for charting the cycle of the ENSO going back ten thousand years.The charts created by the research team suggest that the ENSO cycle does not have a predictable cycle and also that it has not been increasing in strength over the course of the Holocene as others have suggested. They did find some patterns, however. During a period approximately 4,000 to 5,000 years ago, for example, the ENSO was relatively weak, and during another period, from 6,700 to 7,500 years ago, ocean temperatures along the coast of Peru appeared to have been skewed by the location of warm water from an El Niño (when trade winds push warm water into the Eastern Pacific.)
When you glide up a staircase adorned with flowers and a beautiful madhubani painting welcomes you at the entrance, your face beams up as you know that you are in for a celebration. Indeed it was a celebration of craftsmanship of artists from across the country put on display in Cottage Emporium as a part of Navkriti exhibition. The exhibition that is open for display cum sale till 4 July was inaugurated by Kavuru Sambasiva Rao, Union Minister of Textiles on Thursday in august presence of Panabaaka Lakshmi, Union Minister of State for Petroleum and Textiles at Cottage Emporium, Janpath. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Walk into the hall and a confluence of ethnic and contemporary styles of design opens up to you. Launching new designs by master craftspersons, Navkriti has an array of collections at display tucked into a corner of the vibrant six level Cottage emporium. Inverted multicolored umbrellas drop down from the high cielings of the emporium, creating an impression of a sky bursting out with colours. Take a sneak peek of the collection: wooden crafts of Saharanpur, Hyderabadi Kalamkari on fabric, Kantha embroidery from Santiniketan,block printing from Jaipur and integrated mettalic designs from national award winners on display. What caught our eye were the covetous and innovatively designed mantlepieces made by amalgamating ceramic with copper and brass and the tribal works from Bastar region comprising jewellery, amazingly crafted vegetables and fruits, and miniatures from tribal life. Most of the exhibits are prototypes that can be ordered on demand. Delve into the exotic delights of India, we say!
Inaugurated on Wednesday the event was preceded by a ‘Designers’ Meet’ aimed at sharing various diversified products developed by the research institutes of Central Silk Board with the designers and to showcase their value.It is perceived that these designers can now promote the products in national and international market which in turn can provide better value addition to the stake holders. The participating designers were provided all necessary information which can be adopted with an assurance of necessary facilitation by Central Silk Board and Silk Mark Organisation. Various eminent and upcoming designers including Satya Paul, Abraham and Thakore, Neeta Lulla, Vaishali, Ankita Singh, amongst many others participated in the Meet. ‘Indian silk is primarily consumed in the countries of European Economic Unions, United States of America, Middle East and Japan. The Indian silk has created a niche market worldwide and is extremely famous for its beauty and elegance,’ said K. Sukumar Menon, CEO, Silk Mark Organisation. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The Indian silk world over is known for its drape fall finish and luster and has created a niche in international markets. The Indian silk clusters are unique in terms of its skill employment, craftsmanship, intricate designs, weaving techniques, technologies deployed and process adopted. In order to develop a range of new products Central Silk Board has taken up various initiatives through its research institutes in collaboration with other research institutes like NIFT, Army Institute of Fashion and Design, and others. The eri silk which is used primarily in Assam by the tribals to produce chadders and mekhla has now been converted into high end mens wear like eri knitted garments, denims, blends. Similarly Muga silk which is primarily produced in Assam only for local consumption has now been converted into a range of existing products like bridal wear and dress materials. The tasar silk which is mainly produced in Central India has now been converted into high end men’s wear and products with rich designs for women. The launch of designer silk collection is to encourage the designers and new entrepreneurs to take up this new commercial venture for the benefit of primary producers.
Kolkata: There is a good news for the people of the state as various types of fishes including Hilsa is made available at all the Sufal Bangla stalls across the state.With the onset of monsoon, Bengalis are now ready to pay anything to buy Hilsa. As the demands for Hilsa have gone up, a section of traders are utilising the opportunity to make fast money by increasing the rates of the fish, specially on Sundays.The Agriculture Marketing department has come to help the people of Bengal to buy better quality fishes at the right price. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsFrom Thursday onwards, fishes including Hilsa, Bhetki, Pabda and Parshe will be available at the stalls of Sufal Bangla.Tapan Dasgupta, the state Agriculture Marketing minister, made the announcement of making fishes available in Sufal Bangla stalls after inaugurating two stalls in Salt Lake and one in Belgachia on Thursday.Chandranath Sinha, the state Fisheries minister, was also present at the inaugural ceremony of the stall in Salt Lake. MP Dr Shantanu Sen also attended the inaugural ceremony. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedDasgupta said besides fishes, fruits will also be made available at stalls. One can buy fruits including Mangos, Bananas, Coconuts and Guavas at the stalls.At present, there are around 46 movable such stalls that keep moving from one point to another in a specific area in urban parts of the city to help common people get fresh vegetables at the right price and with the setting up of three such Sufal Bangla stalls on Thursday, there are now around 24 stalls those have been constructed in different urban areas of the state. The Sufal Bangla stalls are basically run by the Farmers Producers Organisations (FPO) who collect vegetables from the farmers of the rural parts of the state and bring it to the stalls to sell it out. It ensures availability of fresh vegetables and fruits.Moreover, people are never charged more. They get vegetables, fruits and fishes at the right price. The Agriculture Marketing department has set a target of setting up total 100 Sufal Bangla stalls.
They say dance is the hidden language of the soul. Groomed in classical Tanjore dance, Sohini Roychowdhury combines the best of two worlds — a classical conservative training and a modern innovative outlook. Expressional dance being her forte, she gives greater importance to the aesthetics of dance and the clear interpretation of mythology. She shares her journey with Millennium Post, where she talks about her recent innovative forays into the realm of self-choreographed thematic dance dramas, which she performs with her troupe Sohinimoksha. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’How did classical dance happen to you?Born to sitar maestro Pandit Subroto
Kolkata: Two full grown elephants and a calf were killed when a speeding train knocked them down in Jhargram district on early Tuesday morning.According to local administration, the elephants were crossing the railway track near Gidhni railway station at around 1.30 am when hit by Gyaneswari Express. Gidhni railway station is situated at a distance of around 180 km from Kolkata.A senior Forest department official said a herd of 11 elephants were seen roaming around the forest areas of Jhargram for the past few days. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeThe three elephants, which were killed, are suspected to be a part of the herd recently spotted.Following the incident, senior Forest department officials and police officers reached the spot to monitor the situation.The carcasses were removed from the railway track. The senior Forest department officials said it was not an isolated incident. The carcasses were later cremated at a nearby forest later in the day. According to a forest official, there must be some mechanism to avoid the death of elephants in this manner. Without a proper mechanism, these incidents cannot not be averted.The incident has led to the disruption of trains.According to railway sources, train services were partially affected for around two hours at the Kharagpur-Tatanagar section of the South Eastern Railway (SER).Three local trains — Jhargram-Medinipur, Kharagpur-Dhanbad and Kharagpur-Purulia — were cancelled this morning, an official said.
After two successful years, the third edition of the North East Festival was successfully held in a brand new avatar in the national Capital. The festival which began on October 16 at IGNCA, Janpath, was inaugurated by Arvind Kejriwal, Chief Minister of Delhi. Manish Sisodia, Deputy CM Delhi, Kapil Mishra, Tourism Minister of Delhi were the guest of honours for the inaugural. This year’s main focus of the festival was Tourism, Look East and Act East Policy with various discussion sessions with top policy makers. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The North-East Festival is synonymous with the unification of the various stakeholders of North East under one dynamic platform. While inaugurating the 3rd edition of North-East Festival, Arvind Kejriwal, Chief Minister of Delhi, said, “North East is the most beautiful destination in India and its people are also most beautiful and nice. It is extremely heartening to see such a festival happening in Delhi. North-East festival is a great initiative and we promise to make it bigger with more marketing next year. I would like to ensure that people from North East are safe in Delhi and we will do everything to ensure their safety here.” Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixThis year a special exhibition on North East’s Freedom Fighters’ contribution to India’s Independence has been organised. Arvind Kejriwal was gifted a sketch of
Art will never be the same again- India International Centre (IIC) has come up with an alluring presentation of installations and sculptures. The exhibition will seamlessly occupy India International Centre’s Gandhi Plaza with art works free from the constraints of a patriarchal/commercial art history. An aristocratic Gandhi Plaza with natural trees and a dramatic natural skylight will behold installations as well as magical yet thoughtful free standing pieces like Neeraj Gupta’s Divine Love, Arun Pandit’s Mask Seller, Sanjay Bhattacharyya’s 12 foot bronze Krishna, Vineet Kacker’s Buddhist Pillar, Tapas Biswas’ Innocence and Mukesh Sharma’s magnificent Shesh Nag. Also Read – Add new books to your shelf“iSculpt is a revolution in the making of public exhibitions and public art that expresses fidelity to the idea of a ‘sculpture of one’s own’– in this case, a series of literal and metaphorical works dedicated to material experimentation and innovation- and in doing so provides a plethora of works for the history of ingenuity among sculptors to take root,” says curator Uma Nair. The exhibition will be an evolution in the making which will adopt a generous stance that exults form, materiality, and process alongside the history of art discourse, which allows for a breadth of new readings and understandings to occur, both between artists and generations of artists. Neeraj Gupta’s Divine Love is a testimony to the warmth of human relationships and the eternal quest for a civilization to live and procreate for posterity. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveMadhab Das’ National Award winning work An Inconvenient Truth of a deer with iron, bricks and tall iron rods is a statement on the loss of habitat for the beautiful animal whose world is threatened because of large scale deforestation. Sanjay Bhattacharyya’s tall and stately Krishna as a flute player will be the cynosure of all eyes as will be Arun Pandit’s powerful bronze Mask Seller, a work that looks at the many faces of the human predicament.From Kolkata is the gifted Tapas Biswas, whose works Innocence I and III are a network of leaves and twigs created in metal –while one work looks like an intricate network of leaves and twigs with a resonance of nature the second work with the face of a little girl- it has many suggestions of the attention needed for the girl child. Mukesh Sharma’s Shesh Nag was part of the Venice Biennale and is a testimony to the uselessness of waste and the degree of conspicuous consumption. Created out of computer boards and styrofoam packaging materials this is a head turner. Puneet Kaushik’s wire spiral of a metaphoric spider, talks to us at different levels about the beauty of nature, the fragile eco system. Vineet Kacker’s Buddha Pillar is a statement of charismatic contours and the felicity of weaving spiritual fervour into the textural terrain of ceramic ware. Atul Sinha’s wooden carved work with sleek textural contours sets him apart as a sculptor of deep reverberations. The show will be a mélange of installations and sculptures that create their own rhythms in the beauty and setting of the Gandhi Plaza which Nair believes is the best in the capital city to garner as a sculpture court. The show will be inaugurated by Lt Governor Najeeb Jung on December 6 at 5PM at India International Centre and will be put on public view from December 7 – 21.
Kolkata: The Paschimbanga Bangla Akademi (PBA) will soon come up with a directory of the little magazines in the state so that the state government can provide assistance to them in times of need. “We are presently collecting names and addresses of the little magazines spanning across the state. We are trying to release the directory of the little magazines on February 21, which is observed as Bhasha Divas,” said Shaoli Mitra, president of PBA that comes under the aegis of the state Information & Cultural Affairs department. Also Read – 3 injured, flight, train services hit as rains lash BengalThe matter inviting details of various little magazines has been published in various newspapers and the response has been quite good. Mitra also informed that PBA is going to hold the five-day Literary Festival & Little Magazine Fair at Rabindra Okakura Bhavan in Salt Lake. The festival will be inaugurated by state Education minister Partha Chatterjee on Friday, in presence of minister of state for Information & Cultural Affairs Indranil Sen. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedThe festival that will be held till January 15, will have 300 little magazine stalls and 300 poets, novelists and authors will indulge in book reading and recitation. 25 little magazine publications will be handed over a grant of Rs 25,000 each by the state government during the festival this year, with the aim of ensuring their smooth functioning in the days to come. “We give priority to promotion of the little magazines as many famous authors have risen to eminence through contributions to them,” Mitra said. A walk will be organised on Friday from the foot of the statue of Rabindranath Tagore at Central Park in Salt Lake upto the festival venue, with hoardings and banners highlighting the event. The inaugural programme will follow after the walk. The first day of the festival will host a befitting tribute to late poet Nirendranath Chakraborty.